.
.


    Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR)
    Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, no person may operate an aircraft
    below the following altitudes:

    § 91.119   Minimum safe altitudes: General.

             (a) Anywhere. An altitude allowing, if a power unit fails, an emergency
    landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface.

    (b) Over congested areas. Over any congested area of a city, town, or
    settlement, or over any open air assembly of persons, an altitude of 1,000
    feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of 2.000 feet of the aircraft.

    (c) Over other than congested areas. An altitude of 500 feet above the
    surface, except over open water or over sparsely populated areas. In that
    case, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person,
    vessel, vehicle, or structure.

    (d) Helicopters. Helicopters may be operated at less than the minimums
    prescribed in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section if the operation is conducted
    without hazard to persons or property on the surface. In addition, each person
    operating a helicopter shall comply with routes or altitudes specifically
    prescribed for helicopters by the Administrator.

    (1) A helicopter may be operated at less than the minimums prescribed in paragraph (b)
    or (c) of this section, provided each person operating the helicopter complies with any
    routes or altitudes specifically prescribed for helicopters by the FAA; and

    (2) A powered parachute or weight-shift-control aircraft may be operated at less than the
    minimums prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

    [Docket No. 18334, 54 FR 34294, Aug. 18, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 91–311, 75
    FR 5223, Feb. 1, 2010]

    Part 135 OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON-DEMAND
    OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT.

    Subpart D--VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements        

    Sec. 135.203 Visual Flight Rules (VFR): Minimum altitudes.

    Except when necessary for takeoff and landing, no person may operate under VFR—
    (a) An airplane—
    (1) During the day, below 500 feet above the surface or less than 500 feet
    horizontally from any obstacle; or

    (2) At night, at an altitude less than 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle
    within a horizontal distance of 5 miles from the course intended to be
    flown or, in designated mountainous terrain, less than 2,000 feet above
    the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 5 miles from the course
    intended to be flown; or

    (b) A helicopter over a congested area at an altitude less than 300 feet above
    the surface.

    Sec. 91.13   Careless or reckless operation

    (a) Aircraft operations for the purpose of air navigation. No person may operate an
    aircraft in a careless or reckless manner so as to endanger the life or property of
    another.

    The FAA considering establishing Class D and E airspace and amending existing
    Class E airspace at East Hampton, NY, to accommodate the new air traffic control
    tower at East Hampton Airport.

    Sec. 91.127 Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class E airspace

    (a) Unless otherwise required by part 93 of this chapter or unless otherwise
    authorized or required by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class E
    airspace area, each person operating an aircraft on or in the vicinity of an airport
    in a Class E airspace area must comply with the requirements of Sec. 91.126.

    (b) Departures. Each pilot of an aircraft must comply with any traffic patterns
    established for that airport in part 93 of this chapter.

    (c) Communications with control towers. Unless otherwise authorized or required
    by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft to, from, through, or on an airport
    having an operational control tower unless two-way radio communications are
    maintained between that aircraft and the control tower. Communications must be
    established prior to 4 nautical miles from the airport, up to and including 2,500 f
    eet AGL. However, if the aircraft radio fails in flight, the pilot in command may
    operate that aircraft and land if weather conditions are at or above basic VFR
    weather minimums, visual contact with the tower is maintained, and a clearance
    to land is received. If the aircraft radio fails while in flight under IFR, the pilot must
    comply with Sec. 91.185.

    Sec. 91.129 Operations in Class D airspace  

    (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized or required by the ATC facility having
    jurisdiction over the Class D airspace area, each person operating an aircraft in
    Class D airspace must comply with the applicable provisions of this section. In
    addition, each person must comply with Secs. 91.126 and 91.127. For the
    purpose of this section, the primary airport is the airport for which the Class D
    airspace area is designated. A satellite airport is any other airport within the
    Class D airspace area.

    (b) Deviations. An operator may deviate from any provision of this section under
    the provisions of an ATC authorization issued by the ATC facility having
    jurisdiction over the airspace concerned. ATC may authorize a deviation on a
    continuing basis or for an individual flight, as appropriate.

    (c) Communications. Each person operating an aircraft in Class D airspace
    must meet the following two-way radio communications requirements:

    (1) Arrival or through flight. Each person must establish two-way radio
    communications with the
    ATC facility (including foreign ATC in the case of foreign airspace
    designated in the United States) providing air traffic services prior to
    entering that airspace and thereafter maintain those
    communications while within that airspace.

    (2) Departing flight. Each person—
    (i) From the primary airport or satellite airport with an operating
    control tower must establish and maintain two-way radio
    communications with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed
    by ATC while operating in the Class D airspace area; or

    (ii) From a satellite airport without an operating control tower, must
    establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC
    facility having jurisdiction over the Class D airspace area as soon
    as practicable after departing.

    (d) Communications failure. Each person who operates an aircraft in a
    Class D airspace area must maintain two-way radio communications with the
    ATC facility having jurisdiction over that area.

    (1) If the aircraft radio fails in flight under IFR, the pilot must comply
    with Sec. 91.185 of the part.
    (2) If the aircraft radio fails in flight under VFR, the pilot in command may
    operate that aircraft and land if—
    (i) Weather conditions are at or above basic VFR weather minimums;
    (ii) Visual contact with the tower is maintained; and
    (iii) A clearance to land is received.

    (e) Minimum altitudes when operating to an airport in Class D airspace.

    (1) Unless required by the applicable distance-from-cloud criteria, each
    pilot operating a large or turbine-powered airplane must enter the traffic
    pattern at an altitude of at least 1,500 feet above the elevation of the
    airport and maintain at least 1,500 feet until further descent is required for
    a safe landing.

    (2) Each pilot operating a large or turbine-powered airplane approaching
    to land on a runway served by an instrument approach procedure with
    vertical guidance, if the airplane is so equipped, must:

    (i) Operate that airplane at an altitude at or above the glide path
    between the published final approach fix and the decision altitude
    (DA), or decision height (DH), as applicable; or

    (ii) If compliance with the applicable distance-from-cloud criteria
    requires glide path interception closer in, operate that airplane at or
    above the glide path, between the point of interception of glide path
    and the DA or the DH.

    (3) Each pilot operating an airplane approaching to land on a runway
    served by a visual approach slope indicator must maintain an altitude at
    or above the glide path until a lower altitude is necessary for a safe landing.

    (4) Paragraphs (e)(2) and (e)(3) of this section do not prohibit normal
    bracketing maneuvers above or below the glide path that are conducted
    or the purpose of remaining on the glide path.

    (f) Approaches. Except when conducting a circling approach under Part 97 of
    this chapter or unless otherwise required by ATC, each pilot must—
    (1) Circle the airport to the left, if operating an airplane; or
    (2) Avoid the flow of fixed-wing aircraft, if operating a helicopter.

    (g) Departures. No person may operate an aircraft departing from an airport
    except in compliance with the following:
    (1) Each pilot must comply with any departure procedures established for
    that airport by the FAA.

    (2) Unless otherwise required by the prescribed departure procedure for
    that airport or the applicable distance from clouds criteria, each pilot of a
    turbine-powered airplane and each pilot of a large airplane must climb to
    an altitude of 1,500 feet above the surface as rapidly as practicable.

    (h) Noise abatement. Where a formal runway use program has been established
    by the FAA, each pilot of a large or turbine-powered airplane assigned a noise
    abatement runway by ATC must use that runway. However, consistent with the
    final authority of the pilot in command concerning the safe operation of the
    aircraft as prescribed in Sec. 91.3(a), ATC may assign a different runway if
    requested by the pilot in the interest of safety.

    (i) Takeoff, landing, taxi clearance. No person may, at any airport with an
    operating control tower, operate an aircraft on a runway or taxiway, or take
    off or land an aircraft, unless an appropriate clearance is received from
    ATC. A clearance to "taxi to" the takeoff runway assigned to the aircraft is
    not a clearance to cross that assigned takeoff runway, or to taxi on that
    runway at any point, but is a clearance to cross other runways that intersect
    the taxi route to that assigned takeoff runway. A clearance to "taxi to" any
    point other than an assigned takeoff runway is clearance to cross all
    runways that intersect the taxi route to that point.






QUIET SKIES COALITION     PO Box 956     Wainscott, NY   11975       

FAQS